Reminder to Ontario Corporations: Deadline to have your Real Property Register is December 10, 2018

December 6, 2018

Effective December 10, 2018, Ontario corporations incorporated prior to December 10, 2016 must maintain a record called a "register of its ownership interests in land in Ontario".

When can Directors of Charities be Compensated?

November 27, 2018

The holiday season is a time to reconnect with family and friends and reflect on the year that has passed. It is also a time of year that many people make charitable giving a priority.

Keys, Please: The Econolodge Park-and-Fly Conundrum

November 20, 2018

On October 19, 2018, the Supreme Court of Canada released its decision in 3091 5177 Québec inc. (Éconolodge Aéroport) v. Lombard General Insurance Co. of Canada, 2018 SCC 43. The decision mostly focused on the "care, custody and control" exclusion, but is also of interest for insurers wishing to pursue subrogation for theft of vehicles while in the care of others.

Supreme Court of Canada Refuses to Hear Appeal from Ontario Court of Appeal Decision Giving Ontario Municipalities More Independence Over Parkland

November 19, 2018

On November 15, 2018, the Supreme Court of Canada dismissed applications for leave to appeal from a decision of a three-judge panel of the Ontario Court of Appeal concerning the rights of municipalities to determine how much parkland they require from developers as a condition of development approval under the Planning Act.

The Laws They Are A'Changing (Again) – Backtrack on Bill 148: Proposed Reversals of Key Employment Law Changes in Ontario

November 8, 2018 | download

On October 23, 2018, the Ontario government introduced Bill 47, entitled Making Ontario Open for Business Act, which would repeal various sections of the Fair Workplaces, Better Jobs Act, 2017 ("Bill 148") that introduced by the previous provincial government.

If Bill 47 passes, many of the amendments made to the Employment Standards Act, 2000 (the "ESA") under Bill 148 would be reversed. Below is a summary of the key provisions of the ESA that the Ontario government intends to repeal in the near future.

Privacy Breaches: New Mandatory Notification Requirements Under PIPEDA

November 1, 2018

On November 1st, 2018 new mandatory breach notification and record-keeping requirements under the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act ("PIPEDA") and the Breach of Security Safeguards Regulations will come into force.

Timing is Everything: Subrogation Claims in the Context of a Construction Loss

August 22, 2018

It is often perceived that subrogation claims are barred in the context of a construction loss. This is because typically the applicable construction policies will contain waivers of subrogation and list the various contractors as additional insureds. However, a very recent decision by the Ontario Superior Court demonstrates an example where subrogation was not precluded.

Ontario Government Makes Policy U-Turn: Doug Ford's Plan for the Private Retail Sale of Cannabis

August 14, 2018

Fresh off his convincing electoral victory, Premier Doug Ford has announced that he plans to begin the process of scrapping Ontario's existing approach to the retail sale of cannabis, which had been introduced by the predecessor Liberal government.

Is the Clock Ticking? The Court of Appeal Discusses Discoverability and the Application of Section 5(1)(a)(iv) of the Limitations Act, 2002

August 14, 2018

In Gillham v. Lake of Bays (Township), 2018 ONCA 667, a case about the discoverability of claims for damages arising out of construction deficiencies, the Court of Appeal confirmed that all factors under s. 5(1) of the Limitations Act, 2002 must be considered in analyzing the question of discoverability and before a claim can be held to be statute-barred.  The decision focused specifically on the application of s. 5(1)(a)(iv), which provides that one condition for a claim to be discovered is that, having regard to the nature of the injury, loss or damage, a proceeding would be an appropriate means to seek to remedy it.

Out of the Weeds: What You Need to Know About the Cannabis Act as an Employer

August 8, 2018

On June 20, 2018, the Government of Canada passed Bill C-45, the Cannabis Act, which will, among other things, legalize the recreational use of cannabis. The Cannabis Act will come into force on October 17, 2018. Employers must be aware of the implications that the legalization of recreational cannabis may have on its workplace and be ready to act proactively.

The Court of Appeal Addresses Various Aspects of Appellate Review in Di Gregorio v Sunwing Vacations Inc.

August 3, 2018

In Di Gregorio v Sunwing Vacations Inc., the Court of Appeal allowed an appeal from the decision of a motion judge dismissing the appellants' claim based on a foreign limitation period. While the facts underlying the motion judge's and the Court of Appeal's decisions are not unusual for cases that raise the issue of the courts' jurisdiction to hear a matter (which often involve injuries or damages that are sustained by Ontario claimants vacationing abroad), the decision itself is somewhat unusual given the bases on which the appeal was granted and the nature of the deficiencies in the motion judge's decision.

Fourth Time's Not a Charm: A Case of Subrogation Despite Contrasting Trilogy of Decisions by the Supreme Court of Canada

July 24, 2018

In Royal Host GP Inc. v. 1842259 Ontario Ltd., 2018 ONCA 467, the Ontario Court of Appeal recently examined whether there was a bar to subrogation in a commercial lease. The Court found that there was no bar and set out a useful summary of the law in this area. 

International Commercial Arbitration Awards: When Does an Arbitration Award Become Binding?

July 20, 2018

"A bad beginning makes a bad ending."
- Aeolus, fragment 32

And so the saying went for Mr. Popack and Mr. Lipszyc, the parties in the recent decision of the Court of Appeal in Popack v Lipszyc, 2018 ONCA 635. The issues in this case were when an arbitration award of a rabbinical court was binding and whether it should be recognized and enforced in Ontario.

Libel Tourism and Forum Shopping: The Supreme Court of Canada Applies the Van Breda Test to an Internet Defamation Claim

June 19, 2018

In v. Goldhar,  a decision released on June 6, 2018, the Supreme Court of Canada confronted the array of thorny analytical and practical issues raised by multijurisdictional defamation claims. 

Litigating Competition Law in Canada, Edited by Nikiforos Iatrou

June 1, 2018

Nikiforos Iatrou, Chair, WeirFoulds' Competition Law Group, has assembled Canada's first textbook focused solely on competition litigation. Titled "Litigating Competition Law in Canada" (LexisNexis, 2018), it is edited by Niki and features contributions from Canada's leading competition litigators and a Foreword from The Hon. Justice John B. Laskin of the Federal Court of Appeal. This text contains practical guidance for private practitioners and in-house counsel when dealing with a contentious competition law case and provides strategic insight into the procedural aspects of litigating a competition matter.

An end to the enforcement saga? Yaiguaje v. Chevron Corporation and the Preservation of the Corporate Veil

May 30, 2018

In its recent decision in Yaiguaje v. Chevron Corporation, 2018 ONCA 472, the Court of Appeal clarifies the interpretation of the Execution Act, R.S.O., 1990, c. E.24, and reiterates the test for piercing the corporate veil in the context of the enforcement of a judgment. While the decision reinforces the long-standing principle of corporate separateness, it also raises certain questions regarding the role of equity in piercing the corporate veil to enforce a valid judgment.

The Mareva Injunction: A "vital arrow" for fraud victims, according to Ontario's Divisional Court

May 22, 2018

In a recent decision, Ontario's Divisional Court reviewed the requirements for succeeding in obtaining a Mareva injunction, and, more importantly, reaffirmed the importance of such an injunction in fraud cases.

Backtrack on Bill 148: Changes to Calculating Public Holiday Pay for Employers in Ontario

May 17, 2018

On May 7, 2018, the Ontario government announced that the Ontario Ministry of Labour will conduct a review of the public holiday system under Part X of the Employment Standards Act, 2000 following feedback and discussions with stakeholders about the changes pursuant to Bill 148.

British Overseas Territories Faced with Push for Transparency by UK Government

May 4, 2018

On 1 May 2018, the UK Government accepted an amendment to the Sanctions and Anti-Money Laundering Bill, which now heads back to the House of Lords.

Out of Scope – The Court of Appeal Finds that the Duty to Supply Product Fit for Human Consumption Does Not Extend to Franchisees' Pure Economic Loss

May 3, 2018 | download

On April 30, 2018, the Court of Appeal for Ontario released its decision in 1688782 Ontario Inc. v Maple Leaf Foods Inc., 2018 ONCA 407, reversing a decision granting summary judgment (in part) in favour of Mr. Sub franchisees in a class action commenced against Maple Leaf Foods Inc. following the listeria contamination of certain Maple Leaf ready-to-eat meats in 2008. The Court of Appeal's decision makes numerous references to the Supreme Court's decision in Deloitte & Touche v Livent (Receiver of), 2017 SCC 63, and highlights the importance of properly defining the scope of any duty of care arising from a relationship between parties.

The Latest in the Catalyst Capital Litigation Saga: Spoliation, Substantial Indemnity Costs and Abuse of Process

April 23, 2018

Two decisions have been recently issued in respect of the claims brought by the investment management firm Catalyst Capital Group Inc. following its unsuccessful efforts to acquire WIND Mobile Inc. in 2014. The results in both decisions (one by the Ontario Superior Court of Justice, and the other by the Court f Appeal) were driven primarily by factual findings.

The Independence of Expert Witnesses

April 2, 2018

Although the proposition that an expert should be independent has always been accepted wisdom, the requirement that an expert be independent has only recently been mandated by the Court as part of the threshold test for admissibility.

Frozen but Available: The Limits of a Mareva Injunction

February 15, 2018

In the recent decision Trade Capital Finance Corp. v Cook, the Ontario Court of Appeal considered a claim of a non-party creditor over the defendant's funds that were subject to a Mareva injunction. While the decision focuses on a specific aspect of a Mareva injunction, as discussed further below, it serves as a reminder of how this equitable remedy can be obtained and used in commercial litigation, and of the limits of this remedy.

Once Bitten, Twice Shy? Not so, says the Ontario Court of Appeal

January 16, 2018

In the April, 2017 case of Deslaurier Custom Cabinets v. 1728106 Ontario Inc., 2017 ONCA 293, the Ontario Court of Appeal had occasion to revisit an issue that it had previously dealt with in the same case one year earlier, that is, the standard of appellate review applicable to contractual interpretation cases. After one of the parties sought leave to appeal to the Supreme Court of Canada, the Supreme Court remanded the case back to the Court of Appeal, to be decided in accordance with the Supreme Court's decision in Ledcor Construction Ltd. v. Northbridge Indemnity Insurance Co., 2016 SCC 37 ("Ledcor").

Equity Rules the Day: The Supreme Court of Canada Clarifies the Tenets of Proprietary Estoppel

January 8, 2018

In December 2017, the Supreme Court of Canada released its decision in Cowper-Smith v. Morgan, 2017 SCC 61, a case dealing with the issue of proprietary estoppel.  While the facts of this case are borne out of circumstances relating to an estate, the law as set out by the Supreme Court can be equally applied in the context of commercial litigation in relation to promises made in a commercial context.  

Mandatory Arbitration Isn't Always Mandatory in Canada

January 8, 2018

WeirFoulds partner Nikiforos Iatrou and associate Anastasija Sumakova contributed to the Winter 2018 issue of Today's General Counsel with their article, "Mandatory Arbitration Isn't Always Mandatory in Canada".

"Entrepreneurial" Class Plaintiff Hit With $1 Million Costs Award

December 8, 2017

In Yip v. HSBC Holdings plc, a decision released on November 20, 2017, Justice Perell awarded partial indemnity costs of $1 million to defendants that had succeeded, on jurisdictional and forum conveniens grounds, in defeating a proposed shareholder class action. 

International Anti-Corruption Day: 9 December

December 8, 2017

International Anti-Corruption Day has been recognized on an annual basis since the passage of the United Nations Convention against Corruption – which Canada has ratified – in 2003. This year, International Anti-Corruption Day falls on 9 December 2017.

Lenders Should Think Twice Before Foreclosing on Sympathetic Mortgagors

December 6, 2017

Many mortgage enforcement actions proceed through Ontario courts every day. When mortgagees are not paid in accordance with the terms to which they have agreed with the mortgagor, they have a number of options open to them. These options include foreclosure and power of sale proceedings.

Divisional Court Offers First Interpretation of New Interim Suspension Powers Under the RHPA

December 4, 2017


In Rohringer v Royal College of Dental Surgeons of Ontario (2017),1  the Divisional Court issued its first decision applying the new interim suspension powers in the Regulated Health Professions Act ("RHPA"). Health professionals governed by the RHPA can have their certificate of registration suspended (or have terms, conditions, or limitations placed on their certificate of registration) prior to a discipline hearing if their conduct "exposes or is likely to expose the member's patients to harm or injury."2 On May 30, 2017, Bill 87, Protecting Patients Act, 2017 came into force and amended the interim order provisions of the RHPA. Prior to these amendments, interim orders could only be issued by a college's screening committee, known as the Inquiries, Complaints, and Reports Committee (the "ICRC"), if an allegation of professional misconduct or incompetence had been referred to the Discipline Committee. Under the new provisions, however, the ICRC can make an interim order any time after a complaint is received or an investigator is appointed. This was intended to be a significant change and this decision is the first time the amendment has been considered by the courts.  

Race to "get a foot in the door" of the recreational cannabis industry raises potentially legal issues

November 30, 2017

Canadian cannabis producers are in a race to increase their size and gain capital ahead of Canada's planned recreational cannabis legalization in July 2018. The recent dueling takeover bids involving a trio of domestic cannabis companies is proof of the jockeying that is currently going on in the industry.

Revisiting First Principles Applicable to Motions for Leave to Intervene in Class Proceedings

November 21, 2017

In Romeo v. Ford Motor Co.,[1] a recent decision of the Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Justice E.M. Morgan considered the principles applicable to a motion to intervene in a certification motion in a class proceeding. This case offers a helpful reminder of first principles applicable to interventions under the Class Proceedings Act, S.O. 1992, c. 6 ("CPA").

[1] 2017 ONSC 6674.

Make a Will Month provides an annual checkup for lawyers and the public

November 21, 2017

According to a 2012 survey conducted by lawyers' insurance company LawPRO, 56 per cent of Canadian adults do not have a signed will and 71 per cent do not have a signed power of attorney. The Ontario Bar Association hopes to tackle this issue during Make a Will Month, a public outreach campaign aimed at educating the public about the importance of executing a will and powers of attorney and informing the public about the ways in which lawyers can assist in estate planning.

Third Edition of the U.S. Sedona Principles and Ongoing Developments in Electronic Discovery

November 20, 2017

Last month, the Sedona Conference announced the publication (forthcoming in 2018) of the third edition of The Sedona Principles: Best Practices, Recommendations & Principles for Addressing Electronic Document Production (the "Principles"), and released a "Final/Prepublication Version". The Principles were developed by the Sedona Conference Working Group on Electronic Document Retention and Production, and represent a set of core principles and best practice recommendations for production of electronic information in litigation. The Principles and extensive commentary to the Principles have been updated twice since their first publication in January 2004 to reflect the continuing developments in technology, the increasing proliferation of electronic documents, the practical issues encountered in litigation, as well as the developments in the law that are often driven by these very factors.

Security for Appeal Costs: Litigation Tactics Through the Holistic Lens

November 7, 2017

In Yaiguaje v. Chevron Corporation, 2017 ONCA 827, a panel of the Ontario Court of Appeal recently reversed, in short order, a decision of one of its members ordering the appellants to pay security for costs. In this protracted international case, the motion judge had ordered the appellants to post $943,000 for security for costs of their appeal of a summary judgment order dismissing their representative claim against Chevron Corporation's Canadian subsidiary.

The Supreme Court of Canada Holds Banks Liable for Conversion: Teva Canada Ltd. v. TD Canada Trust

November 3, 2017

On October 27, 2017, the Supreme Court of Canada released its decision in Teva Canada Ltd. v. TD Canada Trust.1 The Court split 5:4 in the decision to overturn the Ontario Court of Appeal's ruling that the banks were not liable for converting cheques to non-existing or fictitious payees.

Motions for Partial Summary Judgment: Proceed with Caution

October 16, 2017

In Hryniak v Mauldin, the Supreme Court of Canada held that a summary judgment motion is appropriate if: (i) it can achieve a fair and just adjudication; and (ii) it provides a process that allows the judge to make the necessary findings of fact, apply the law to those facts, and is a proportionate, more expeditious and less expensive means to achieve a just result than going to trial.

Chambers Global Practice Guide: Cartels 2018 Canadian Chapter

October 11, 2017

WeirFoulds Competition Practice Group contributed the Canadian chapter to Chambers Global Practice Guide: Cartels 2018.

Court of Appeal Affirms Full Indemnity Costs Award

October 10, 2017

In Net Connect Installation Inc. v. Mobile Zone Inc., 2017 ONCA 766 , a decision released on September 29, 2017, the Court of Appeal articulates the standard of conduct that will merit an award of full indemnity costs against a party. The circumstances in which this case arose are familiar to commercial litigators and the courts, and involve parties dissipating assets in anticipation or in the course of court proceedings.

ONCA considers the "reasonable investigation" defence in securities class actions

October 4, 2017

The Ontario Court of Appeal recently released its decision in Rahimi v SouthGobi Resources Ltd., 2017 ONCA 719, in which it reversed a well-publicized Superior Court securities class action decision.

The continuing saga in Yaiguaje v. Chevron Corporation: a lesson in security for costs and the enforcement of foreign judgments

October 2, 2017

The judicial history in Yaiguaje v. Chevron Corporation spans several jurisdictions and dates back to the early 1990s, while the facts underlying the dispute date back to the 1960s. The matter has reached appeal courts, including the Supreme Court of Canada, and has prompted a review of several issues relevant to the conduct of business internationally, including the enforcement of foreign judgments and piercing the corporate veil.

Primer on Permanent, Mandatory and Interlocutory Injunctions

September 21, 2017

Injunctions are extraordinary remedies. Given their equitable nature, they are very flexible and an invaluable tool for litigators. An interlocutory injunction, if granted, can have a dramatic impact on a case. It is therefore important for lawyers to understand the basics of injunctions.

Back to Basics: A Refresher on the Fundamentals of Contractual Interpretation

September 13, 2017

As the new school year kicks off, the Ontario Court of Appeal's recent decision in RBC Dominion Securities Inc. v. Crew Gold Corporation, 2017 ONCA 648 serves as a handy study guide for lawyers looking to brush up on Contracts 101.

"Umbrella Damages" Forecast for Canada: Cross Border Sellers Beware

August 28, 2017

WeirFoulds partner Nikiforos Iatrou and associate Kayla Theeuwen contributed to the Aug/Sept issue of Today's General Counsel with their article, "‘Umbrella Damages' Forecast for Canada: Cross-border sellers beware ".

The article examines divergent views on the issue of whether umbrella purchasers have a cause of action at Canadian law, and, as a result, identifies that a storm of umbrella damage claims may be in the forecast.

With or Without Prejudice?

August 25, 2017

A recent court decision in Ontario reminds us of the significant implications when communications are characterized as having been made "without prejudice". Such communications are generally precluded from being disclosed or referred to in any subsequent court proceedings. In contrast, no disclosure restrictions are imposed on communications falling outside the without prejudice classification. It is important for parties and their legal advisors to keep the distinction in mind at the time a communication is made.

21st century estate practice: Shrunken heads and sperm

August 1, 2017

Hollywood's vision of an estate solicitor sitting at their desk mulling fine points of tax law while sipping tea and drafting a will is so far from modern practice as to be laughable. One troubling issue for estate practitioners in the 21st century is the plethora of unique assets that have to be planned for, administered, and/or disposed of in a safe and permissible manner. An unscientific survey of our colleagues' experiences yields some useful tips for dealing with unusual assets.

Think That Arbitration Clause Applies? Think Again (and Think Fast!)

July 27, 2017

Many business contracts include broad arbitration clauses meant to apply to any issue related to the interpretation, application and operation of the contract. However, the decision in Allied Accounting v Pacey, 2017 ONSC 4388, released on July 18, 2017, shows that such clauses may be found not to apply in particular cases, depending on other clauses of the contract or the conduct of the parties.

Keeping it in the Family: A Recipe for Trouble for Corporations, a Recipe for Disaster for Expert Witnesses

July 25, 2017

Closely held corporations do not operate pursuant to a different statute than widely held corporations. Generally speaking, all corporations created pursuant to the same business corporation statute – whether controlled by a sole director, officer and shareholder, a 20-member board of directors or 100 shareholders pursuant to a Unanimous Shareholders' Agreement – have the same governance obligations and responsibilities. 

Personal Liability of Directors in Oppression Cases: The Supreme Court Clarifies the Applicable Criteria in Wilson v Alhareyeri

July 13, 2017

In Wilson v Alharayeri, 2017 SCC 39, released on July 13, 2017, the Supreme Court of Canada affirms the decisions of the lower courts holding two directors personally liable to pay compensation to a minority shareholder in an oppression case brought under section 241 of the Canada Business Corporations Act (CBCA). The Supreme Court's unanimous decision clarifies the criteria governing the imposition of personal liability on corporate directors in oppression cases.

A Warning to Contractors and a Lesson for Regulators: Enforcement and Penalties Under the Consumer Protection Act

June 12, 2017

Virtually every regulator engages in some form of consumer protection. Concerns relating to false billing, misleading advertising, and the failure to deliver products and services can be found in nearly every regulatory statute. The vigour with which regulators seek the most serious remedies relating to these consumer protection issues is, however, quite variable. In some cases, the media has criticized regulators for not revoking a registrant's registration when they have been found guilty of professional misconduct for false or misleading billings.

Tribunal Provides Guidance on Financial Abuse of Elderly

April 21, 2017

Canada has an aging population with more Canadians over the age of 65 than under the age of 15. As the population of older Canadians grows, so does the concerns for elder mistreatment, most commonly financial abuse. Despite this issue being a serious public health concern, the topic has rarely crept into the legal lexicon.

More recently, Law makers, regulators, and adjudicators have begun to turn their minds to financial abuse of older adults. Paving the way is Vice Chair Laurie Sanford ("VC Sanford") in the recent Licence Appeal Tribunal decision of 2138658 Ontario Ltd. o/a Seeley's Bay Retirement Home v. Registrar, Retirement Homes Regulatory Authority ("Seeley's Bay"). This is the first case to look at financial abuse in the context of the Retirement Homes Act, 2010 (the "Act").

Section 67 of the Act requires a licensee to protect residents from abuse by anyone. The regulation under the Act defines "financial abuse" as "any misappropriation or misuse of a resident's money or property". The Act is silent about loans from a resident to the licensee. The question of whether taking such a loan is financial abuse was central in Seeley's Bay.

Alleged Acts of Sexual Abuse Pre-Bill 87: Will Bill 87 Apply?

February 16, 2017

Bill 87 (the "Bill"), which contains significant amendments to the Regulated Health Professions Act, 1991 ("RHPA"),  passed first reading in the Ontario legislature in December 2016. Although the Bill is not yet law, if and when it is enacted, there will be some important changes to the way in which RHPA Colleges deal with allegations of sexual abuse.

Under the Bill, a broader scope of conduct will be considered sexual abuse, and more acts of sexual abuse will result in mandatory revocation. This raises the question: how should Colleges deal with allegations of sexual abuse when the events in question pre-dated these new amendments? Is the member subject to the old RHPA provisions, or might the new provisions apply to the allegations?

The answer? It depends. The law on the application of new legislative provisions to prior conduct is complex and often inconsistent. This bulletin outlines two situations in which this question is likely to arise but it is impossible to give an answer that encompasses every situation, and the discussion below will not apply to all scenarios. As always, Colleges would be wise to consult with legal counsel to determine the appropriate way to proceed in any particular case.

No Bidding Around: The Competition Bureau Targets Bid-Riggers in 2017

January 9, 2017

Over the past few years, we have written and presented extensively about how Canada's Competition Bureau has cracked down on price-fixing and bid-rigging in Canada's construction industry. In December of 2016, the Bureau announced that as a result of several recent discoveries of illegal bidding practices, it will be intensifying its efforts to identify and prevent bid-rigging, with a particular focus on provincial and municipal infrastructure projects.

The Intersection Between Form and Substance in Corporate Law

December 14, 2016

In its recent decision in Mennillo v. Intramodal inc., 2016 SCC 51 ("Mennillo"), the Supreme Court of Canada addressed, for the first time since 2008, the oppression remedy. At issue was whether a corporation's failure to comply with the strict requirements of the Canada Business Corporations Act (the "CBCA") in completing a share transfer was oppressive, even though the share transfer was agreed to and directed by the company's shareholders and directors.

The majority of the Court, in reasons for judgment penned by Cromwell J., found that the intention to transfer the shares effectively trumped any deficiencies in carrying out that intention.  There was a strong dissent, however, written by Côté J., who made an impassioned plea that courts not ignore statutory requirements or reward parties who do so.

The Challenges and Benefits of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) for Municipalities

May 16, 2016 | download

The growing interest in, and deployment of, distributed energy resources ("DER") has been thought to be of interest, albeit for different reasons, primarily to consumers and to local electricity distribution utilities. However, DER has important implications for municipalities, both in their capacity as the owners of those distribution utilities and as a means to promote both conservation and the development of contaminated properties.

Corporate Governance for Municipally-Owned Local Electricity Distribution Utilities

April 27, 2016 | download

Local distribution electricity utilities ("LDCs") have been a source of stable and predictable income for their municipal owners. That is in large measure a result of the fact that LDCs are providing a monopoly service overseen by a regulator charged with the obligation, among other things, to ensure the stability of the LDCs.

Books by WeirFoulds Lawyers

December 1, 2010